• 地球物理学进展 , 2013,Vol.28(6)
  • 地震反射同相轴等时与穿时问题探讨
  • 杨培杰1    刘书会2    隋风贵1   
  • 1. 中石化胜利油田分公司地质科学研究院, 东营 257015;
    2. 中石化胜利油田分公司博士后工作站, 东营 257015;
    3. 中石化胜利油田分公司西部新区研究中心, 东营 257015
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摘要:

等时地层格架的建立是层序地层学和地震沉积学研究的关键和前提.地震反射同相轴所表示的地层并不一定是等时的,当地层岩性界面与时间界面相交时会发生反射同相轴穿时的现象.本文首先介绍了穿时的概念,然后阐述了地震地层学和地震沉积学对地震同相轴等时与穿时问题的理解,最后通过两个抽象的地质模型以及实际地震资料,对地震同相轴的等时性与穿时性进行了总结.认为地震资料频率的高低与地震反射同相轴的等时性、穿时性之间没有必然联系,低频地震资料同相轴有可能是岩性界面,也有可能是时间界面,而高频地震资料同相轴有可能是时间界面,也有可能是岩性界面.一般来说,在低级序的层序中,认为地震同相轴是等时的,而在高级序的层序中由于地震资料分辨率的限制,地震同相轴很有可能就会出现穿时的现象.

关键词: 等时地层格架   等时性   层序地层   地震同相轴   穿时性   沉积  

基金:

国家科技重大专项“渤海湾盆地精细勘探关键技术”(2008ZX05006)和中石化胜利油田分公司博士后课题“陆相断陷盆地地震沉积学关键技术研究及应用”(YKB0905)联合资助.

 

 

Issue on Isochronism and Diachronism of Seismic Events

YANG Pei-jie   LIU Shu-hui   SUI Feng-gui  

1. GeoScience Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield, SINOPEC, Dongying 257015, China;   2. Postdoctoral Workstation of Shengli Oilfield, SINOPEC, Dongying 257015, China;   3. Western New Prospect Research Center of Shengli Oilfield, SINOPEC, Dongying 257015, China  

Abstract:

The establishment of isochronous stratigraphic framework is a key issue of sequence stratigraphy and seismic sedimentology. Isochronous stratigraphic framework is an objective reflection of deposition. The sequence stratigraphic study can not be carried on if stratigraphic frameworks are not established. This will affect the understanding of the structural evolution in different position and cause finally mistakes in geological understanding 3-D seismic data play a crucial role in the establishing of isochronous stratigraphic framework. More accurate stratigraphic framework can be established combining geological and 3-D seismic data. Howerver, Seismic events are not always isochronous. The seismic frequency content of the data controls the dip and architecture of seismic reflection events. Diachronism will occur when the lithology interface intersect with time interface. Firstly, the concept of diachronism is introduced. Secondly, how seismic stratigraphy and seismic sedimentology shed light on this question are explained. Finally, isochronism and diachronism of seismic events are summarized by using two abstract geological models. The frequencies of Seismic data are not necessarily linked with the isochronism and diachronism of seismic events. The low-frequency seismic data is probably lithology interface or time interface, and the high-frequency seismic data is probably time interface or lithology interface. Generally speaking, the seismic events are believed to be isochronous in low-level sequence stratigraphic. In high-level sequence, the seismic events are believed to be diachronous due to the resolution limitations of seismic data.

Keywords: isochronism   sedimentation   diachronism   isochronous stratigraphic framework   seismic events   sequence stratigraphic