• 地理科学进展 , 2013,Vol.32(11)
  • 城市新陈代谢研究综述及展望
  • 宋涛1    蔡建明2    倪攀3    杜姗姗1    丁悦4   
  • 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 哈佛大学, 剑桥, 马萨诸塞州 02138, 美国;
    4. 达华工程管理集团有限公司, 北京 100005;
    5. 北京联合大学应用文理学院, 北京 100191
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摘要:

城市新陈代谢是城市投入资源、能源、人力,产出产品、服务、废弃物的有机过程。本文从城市新陈代谢的宏观系统模拟、土地要素的新陈代谢响应及微观尺度的新陈代谢测度三大视角进行了系统概述。在此基础上,系统介绍了城市代谢系统的物质流、能量流、净初级生产力的人类占用及社会代谢多尺度综合评估等研究方法。城市新陈代谢投入产出指标体系构建以输入、输出端的量化为主,亦包括生态环境效率、人类福利福祉等具体指标。未来城市新陈代谢的研究应进一步深入研究城市新陈代谢内部物质、能流的交换、转换机制,在城市资源环境预警、可持续发展政策制订和绿色社区规划设计中融入城市新陈的研究理念,构建合理有效的城市新陈代谢指标体系。

关键词: 城市新陈代谢   城市地理学   城市可持续发展   研究综述  

基金:

国家自然科学基金项目(40971100);北京联合大学自然科学类新起点计划项目(ZK201201)。

 

 

Review and prospects of urban metabolism research

SONG Tao   CAI Jianming   NI Pan   DU Shanshan   DING Yue  

1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;   2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;   3. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA02138, USA;   4. Dahua Engineering Management (Group) Co., Ltd, Beijing 100005, China;   5. College of Arts & Sciences, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191  

Abstract:

Urban metabolism is an organic process in cities which output products, services and waste with the input of resources, energy, and human efforts. As a complex open dissipative system, urban system, including environmental resources, economy, and social development, can be modeled with a range of metabolic processes. Such problems as resources and energy shortage, ecological damage to the environment, human life quality drops, and economic overgrowth, may be due to metabolic disorder in regional and urban development. This article reviewed the progress in the studies of urban metabolism, such as concept perspectives, methods and index system of urban metabolism. Current research field in the urban metabolism can be divided into three parts: macro- regional simulation of urban metabolic systems, metabolic responses of urban land expansions, and micro- scale metabolic measures of communities. As the field of urban metabolism expands, the traditional view of a stationary urban system is giving way to a more dynamic eco-system which includes social and economic facets of the urban systems. Material flow analysis and energy flow analysis are the main research methods. Material flow analysis tracks all of the material, energy and water flows within the urban metabolic systems. Energy flow analysis, especially the Emergy theory, normalizes all products and services to equivalents of one form of energy that enables all of these resources to be compared on a common basis. These two methods have been used to provide additional information to complement economic theory from the viewpoints of resource, energy, and material inputs and outputs, in order to further inform public policy for urban development and sustainability. In addition, other methods include human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) and multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM). As far as urban metabolic efficiency indicators are concerned, the core is to measure input-output ratio, involving two major categories: indicators of resource input and indicators of output. These two major indicators can be further divided into the indicators of cities' resource consumption, environmental pollution, economic development and social welfare, et al. The integration of them can reflect the overall systematic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Based on in-depth review of urban metabolism development, this article forecasts the trend of application in the urban sustainable metabolism: (1) It is necessary to develop and optimize regional metabolic management policies. Study of urban metabolism is an integral part of monitoring regional environment and provides measures indicative of a region's sustainability. (2) The urban metabolism not only is the basis of an urban daily accounting framework, but also goes a long way towards monitoring urban operations based on the development of the processes in the mathematical models of the urban metabolism. (3) Urban metabolic study helps improve the urban metabolic-oriented green community planning and design. It is possible to reduce environmental impacts by tracking the energy and material flows in urban design. Finally, suggestions on research of urban metabolism are also proposed: focus on the coupling of urban metabolism and industrial development; innovate the mechanism of urban metabolic changes; explore metabolic efficiency differences among different cities; build up a reasonable index system of sustainable metabolism.

Keywords: review   sustainable urban development   urban geography   urban metabolism